venerdì 29 giugno 2018

gI1: Duolingo Abschnitt 1: Basic 1: Tips, notes and exercises 1-21.

B. HS.
g0: Home. ← § gI1. → gI2.

Sez. a - b - c - d - e - f - g -

Duolingo Abschnitt 1: Basic 1

Tips and Notes

Welcome to German :)

Welcome to the German course! We will provide you with tips and notes throughout the course. However, be aware that these are optional. Only read them when you feel stuck, or when you are interested in the details. You can use the course without them.
Often, it's best to just dive into the practice. See how it goes! You can always revisit the Notes section later on.

Capitalizing nouns

In German, all nouns are capitalized. For example, "my name" is mein Name, and "the apple" is der Apfel. This helps you identify which words are the nouns in a sentence.

German genders are strange

Nouns in German are either feminine, masculine or neuter. For example, Frau (woman) is feminine, Mann (man) is masculine, and Kind (child) is neuter.
While some nouns (Frau, Mann, …) have natural gender like in English (a woman is female, a man is male), most nouns have grammatical gender (depends on word ending, or seemingly random).
For example, Mädchen (girl) is neuter, because all words ending in -chen are neuter. Wasser (water) is neuter, but Cola is feminine, and Saft (juice) is masculine.
It is important to learn every noun along with its gender because parts of German sentences change depending on the gender of their nouns.
For now, just remember that the indefinite article (a/an) ein is used for masculine and neuter nouns, and eine is used for feminine nouns. Stay with us to find out how "cases" will later modify these.
gender indefinite article
masculine ein Mann
neuter ein Mädchen
feminine eine Frau

Verb conjugations

Conjugating regular verbs

Verb conjugation in German is more complex than in English. To conjugate a regular verb in the present tense, identify the stem of the verb and add the ending corresponding to any of the grammatical persons, which you can simply memorize. For now, here are the singular forms:
Example: trinken (to drink)
English person ending German example
I -e ich trinke
you (singular informal) -st du trinkst
he/she/it -t er/sie/es trinkt

Conjugations of the verb sein (to be)

Like in English, sein (to be) is completely irregular, and its conjugations simply need to be memorized. Again, you will learn the plural forms soon.
English German
I am ich bin
you (singular informal) are du bist
he/she/it is er/sie/es ist


Umlauts are letters (more specifically vowels) that have two dots above them and appear in some German words like Mädchen.
Literally, "Umlaut" means "around the sound," because its function is to change how the vowel sounds.
no umlaut umlaut
a ä
o ö
u ü
An umlaut change may change the meaning. That's why it's important not to ignore those little dots.

No continuous aspect

In German, there's no continuous aspect. There are no separate forms for "I drink" and "I am drinking". There's only one form: Ich trinke.
There's no such thing as Ich bin trinke or Ich bin trinken!
When translating into English, how can I tell whether to use the simple (I drink) or the continuous form (I am drinking)?
Unless the context suggests otherwise, either form should be accepted.


1. Ich bin eine Frau: I am a woman.
2. Man: Mann.
3. Junge: boy.
4. Ich bin ein Mann: I am a man.
5. Mann: Man
6. Ein Junge: A boy.
7. Eine Frau: A woman.
8. Du bist ein Junge: You are a boy.
9. I am a girl: Ich bin ein Mädchen.
10. Ein Mann und eine Frau: A man and a woman.
11. Ich bin ein Kind: I am a child.
12. Eine Frau, ein Mädchen: a woman, a girl.
13. A child: ein Kind.
14. Ein Junge und ein Mann: a boy and a mann.
15. It is a girl: Es ist ein Mädchen.
16. He is drinking: Er trinkt!
17. Wasser unf Brot: Water and Brot.
18. Write "water" in German: Wasser.
19. Sie ist ein Mädchen: She is a girl.
20. Trinkt er? Does he drink?
21. Es ist Wasser: It is water.

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